From ‘liquid biopsies’ to precision medicine, these five developments will change cancer care in the next decade. Learn more.

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Where do they grow?
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Did you know that there is a little-known fruit that tastes like peanut M&Ms?  A collection of berries.

Hackberries are native to North America and were used extensively by Native Americans as a source of food and medicine. They are high in calories, protein, and sugars, so they make a great trail snack that can be gathered directly from the tree during a hike. The only catch is that these trees can be quite tall. To access the berries, you’ll have to hope some branches are low enough to be in reach or knock them off with a stick.

The texture of the fruits is similar to a peanut M&M. They have a sweet, dry pulp and a crispy shell enclosing a hard, edible seed at their center. They don’t melt in your hand or your mouth, but each bite offers a delicious, candy-like taste along with a satisfying crunch. The pulp is very sweet, with a flavor similar to dates and black tea.

The main drawback is that the seeds can be very hard. Native Americans got around this problem by pounding the berries into a paste or powder that they then stirred into porridge or used to season meat.

 
Need to Know

Hackberries are not sold commercially, so you'll need to forage them. To safely identify the trees and their fruit, you should thoroughly research their appearance. The hackberry tree has a distinct warty, gray-brown bark. Fruits ripen in the fall and do not generally rot on the tree, so you can collect them even during the winter.

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10 Fascinating Facts About Butterflies

Butterfly sipping nectar.

Steven Allen/The Image Bank/Getty Images

 
Butterfly wings are transparent

How can that be? We know butterflies as perhaps the most colorful, vibrant insects around! A butterfly's wings are covered by thousands of tiny scales, and these scales reflect light in different colors. But underneath all of those scales, a butterfly wing is actually formed by layers of chitin, the same protein that makes up an insect's exoskeleton. These layers are so thin you can see right through them. As a butterfly ages, scales fall off the wings, leaving spots of transparency where the chitin layer is exposed.

Butterflies taste with their feetImage result for pics butterflies

Butterflies have taste receptors on their feet to help them find their host plants and locate food. A female butterfly lands on different plants, drumming the leaves with her feet until the plant releases its juices. Spines on the back of her legs have chemoreceptors that detect the right match of plant chemicals. When she identified the right plant, she lays her eggs. A butterfly will also step on its food, using organs that sense dissolved sugars to taste food sources like fermenting fruit.

 
Image result for pics butterfliesButterflies live on an all-liquid diet

Speaking of butterflies eating, adult butterflies can only feed on liquids, usually nectar. Their mouthparts are modified to enable them to drink, but they can't chew solids. A proboscis, which functions as a drinking straw, stays curled up under the butterfly's chin until it finds a source of nectar or other liquid nutrition. It then unfurls the long, tubular structure and sips up a meal. A few butterflies feed on sap, and some even resort to sipping from decaying carrion. No matter the meal, they suck it up a straw.

 
A butterfly must assemble its proboscis as soon as it emerges from the chrysalis

A butterfly that can't drink nectar is doomed. One of its first jobs as an adult butterfly is to assemble its mouthparts. When a new adult emerges from the pupal case or chrysalis, its mouth is in two pieces. Using palpi located adjacent to the proboscis, the butterfly begins working the two parts together to form a single, tubular proboscis. You may see a newly emerged butterfly curling and uncurling the proboscis over and over, testing it out.

Image result for pics butterflies
Butterflies drink from mud puddles

A butterfly cannot live on sugar alone; it needs minerals, too. To supplement its diet of nectar, a butterfly will occasionally sip from mud puddles, which are rich in minerals and salts. This behavior, called puddling, occurs more often in male butterflies, which incorporate the minerals into their sperm. These nutrients are then transferred to the female during mating, and help improve the viability of her eggs.

 
Image result for pics butterfliesButterflies can't fly if they're cold

Butterflies need an ideal body temperature of about 85ºF to fly. Since they're cold-blooded animals, they can't regulate their own body temperatures. The surrounding air temperature has a big impact on their ability to function. If the air temperature falls below 55ºF, butterflies are rendered immobile, unable to flee from predators or feed. When air temperatures range between 82º-100ºF, butterflies can fly with ease. Cooler days require a butterfly to warm up its flight muscles, either by shivering or basking in the sun. Even sun-loving butterflies can get overheated when temperatures soar above 100° F and may seek shade to cool down. 

Image result for pics butterflies
A newly emerged butterfly can't fly

Inside the chrysalis, a developing butterfly waits to emerge with its wings collapsed around its body. When it finally breaks free of the pupal case, it greets the world with tiny, shriveled wings. The butterfly must immediately pump body fluid through its wing veins to expand them. Once its wings reach full-size, the butterfly must rest for a few hours to allow its body to dry and harden before it can take its first flight.

Image result for pics butterflies
Butterflies live just a few weeks, usually

Once it emerges from its chrysalis as an adult, a butterfly has only 2-4 short weeks to live, in most cases. During that time, it focuses all its energy on two tasks – eating and mating. Some of the smallest butterflies, the blues, may only survive a few days. Butterflies that overwinter as adults, like monarchs and mourning cloaks, can live as long as 9 months.

 
Butterflies are nearsighted, but they can see and discriminate a lot of colors

Within about 10-12 feet, butterfly eyesight is quite good. Anything beyond that distance gets a little blurry to a butterfly, though. Butterflies rely on their eyesight for vital tasks, like finding mates of the same species and finding flowers on which to feed. In addition to seeing some of the colors we can see, butterflies can see a range of ultraviolet colors invisible to the human eye. The butterflies themselves may have ultraviolet markings on their wings to help them identify one another and locate potential mates. Flowers, too, display ultraviolet markings that act as traffic signals to incoming pollinators like butterflies – "pollinate me!"

Image result for pics butterflies
 
Butterflies employ all kinds of tricks to keep from being eaten

Butterflies rank pretty low on the food chain, with lots of hungry predators happy to make a meal of them. Some butterflies fold their wings to blend into the background, using camouflage to render themselves all but invisible to predators. Others try the opposite strategy, wearing vibrant colors and patterns that boldly announce their presence. Bright colored insects often pack a toxic punch if eaten, so predators learn to avoid them. Some butterflies aren't toxic at all, but pattern themselves after other species known for their toxicity. By mimicking their foul-tasting cousins, they repel predators.

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Oldest professional club DJ

The oldest professional club DJ is Sumiko Iwamuro aka DJ Sumirock (Japan, b. 27 January 1935) aged 83 years and 118 days, who plays monthly at a club in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, as of 25 May 2018

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30 Odd Historical Facts
  1. The world's youngest parents were age 8 and 9. They lived in China and had their child in 1910.
  2. Kotex was first manufactured as bandages, during WWI.
  3. In the 16th and 17th centuries in the country of Turkey, anyone caught drinking coffee was put to death.
  4. Abraham Lincoln's dog, Fido, was also assassinated.
  5. In England, the Speaker of the House is not allowed to speak.
  6. About 3,000 years ago, most Egyptians died by the time they were 30.
  7. The first known contraceptive was crocodile dung, used by Egyptians in 2000 B.C.
  8. If a statue in the park of a person on a horse has both front legs in the air, the person died in battle. If the horse has one front leg in the air, the person died as a result of wounds received in battle. If the horse has all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural causes.
  9. The youngest pope was 11 years old.
  10. Richard Versalle, a tenor performing at New York's Metropolitan Opera House, suffered a heart attack and fell 10 feet from a ladder to the stage just after singing the line, "You can only live so long."
  11. 60.7 percent of eligible voters participated in the 2004 presidential election, the highest percentage in 36 years. However, more than 78 million did not vote. This means President Bush was re-elected by less than 31% of all eligible voters in the United States.
  12. David Bowie used to think he was being stalked by someone who is dressed like a giant pink rabbit. Bowie noticed the fan at several recent concerts, but became alarmed when he got on a plane and the bunny was also on board.
  13. Dr. Samuel A. Mudd was the physician who set the leg of Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth, and whose shame created the expression for ignominy: "His name is Mudd."
  14. Wayne's World was filmed in two weeks.
  15. The first Fords had engines made by Dodge.
  16. In Ancient Egypt , priests plucked every hair from their bodies, including their eyebrows and eyelashes.
  17. More than 8,100 US troops are still listed as missing in action from the Korean War.
  18. As of January 1, 2004, the population of the United States increases by one person every 12 seconds. There is a birth every eight seconds, an immigrant is added every 25 seconds, and a death every 13 seconds.
  19. Inn the great fire of 1666, half of London was burnt down but only six people were injured.
  20. Toto was paid $125 per week while filming The Wizard of Oz.
  21. The only member of the band ZZ Top without a beard has the last name Beard.
  22. The electric chair was invented by a dentist.
  23. In Egypt around 1500 B.C., a shaved head was considered the ultimate in feminine beauty. Egyptian women removed every hair from their heads with special gold tweezers and polished their scalps to a high sheen with buffing cloths.
  24. George Lumley, aged 104, married Mary Dunning, aged 10, in Nortallerton, England on August 25, 1783. She was the great-great granddaughter of the woman who'd broken her engagement to Lumley, eighty years before.
  25. In Elizabethan England, the spoon was so novel and prized that people carried their own folding spoons to banquets.
  26. It costs more to buy a new car today in the United States than it cost Christopher Columbus to equip and undertake three voyages to and from the New World.
  27. Ancient Egyptians slept on pillows made of stone.
  28. Millie the White House dog earned more than four times as President Bush in 1991.
  29. A law passed in Nebraska in 1912 set hard rules of the road. Drivers in the country at night were required to stop every 150 yards, send up a skyrocket, then wait eight minutes for the road to clear before proceeding cautiously, all the while blowing their horn and shooting off flares.
  30. Louis XIV of France really was as unpleasant a fellow as he's been depicted. In 1674, when he was visiting a school at Clermont, he heard from the school's authorities that one of the children, a nine- year-old Irish lad named Francis Seldon, had made a pun about the king's bald head.
    Louis was furious. He had a secret warrant drawn up for the child's arrest, and young Seldon was thrown into solitary confinement in the Bastille. His parents, members of one of Europe's richest merchant families, were told simply that the child had disappeared. Days turned to months, months to years, and Louis himself passed away. But Francis spent sixty-nine years "in the hole" for making fun of the king's baldness.

 

 
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21 Odd Facts About Your Body

  1. It is physically impossible for you to lick your elbow.
  2. Like fingerprints, everyone's tongue print is different.
  3. Your heart beats over 100,000 times a day.
  4. It takes approximately 12 hours for food to entirely digest.
  5. A sneeze travels out your mouth at over 100 m.p.h.
  6. Women blink nearly twice as often as men.
  7. Most of the dust particles in your house are dead skin.
  8. There is a company that will (for $14,000) take your ashes and compress them into a synthetic diamond to be set in jewelry for a loved one.
  9. There are more living organisms on the skin of a single human being than there are human beings on the surface of the earth.
  10. The longest bout of hiccups lasted nearly 69 years.
  11. Babies is born without kneecaps. They appear between the ages of 2 and 6.
  12. Men can read smaller print than women. Women can hear better.
  13. Wearing headphones for just an hour will increase the bacteria in your ear by 700 times.
  14. If you sneeze too hard you can fracture a rib. If you try to suppress a sneeze you can rupture a blood vessel in your head or neck and die. If you keep your eyes open by force they can pop out.
  15. A kiss stimulates 29 muscles and chemicals that cause relaxation. Women seem to like light and frequent kisses while men like them more strenuous.
  16. Every time you lick a stamp, you're consuming 1/10 of a calorie.
  17. Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing.
  18. The average person falls asleep in seven minutes.
  19. Almost everyone who reads this will try to lick their elbow.
  20. According to Chinese acupuncture, there is a point on the head that you can press to control your appetite. It is located in the hollow just in front of the flap of the ear.
  21. In a recent survey, Americans revealed that banana was their favorite smell.
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21 Odd Facts About Your Body

  1. It is physically impossible for you to lick your elbow.
  2. Like fingerprints, everyone's tongue print is different.
  3. Your heart beats over 100,000 times a day.
  4. It takes approximately 12 hours for food to entirely digest.
  5. A sneeze travels out your mouth at over 100 m.p.h.
  6. Women blink nearly twice as often as men.
  7. Most of the dust particles in your house are dead skin.
  8. There is a company that will (for $14,000) take your ashes and compress them into a synthetic diamond to be set in jewelry for a loved one.
  9. There are more living organisms on the skin of a single human being than there are human beings on the surface of the earth.
  10. The longest bout of hiccups lasted nearly 69 years.
  11. Babies is born without kneecaps. They appear between the ages of 2 and 6.
  12. Men can read smaller print than women. Women can hear better.
  13. Wearing headphones for just an hour will increase the bacteria in your ear by 700 times.
  14. If you sneeze too hard you can fracture a rib. If you try to suppress a sneeze you can rupture a blood vessel in your head or neck and die. If you keep your eyes open by force they can pop out.
  15. A kiss stimulates 29 muscles and chemicals that cause relaxation. Women seem to like light and frequent kisses while men like them more strenuous.
  16. Every time you lick a stamp, you're consuming 1/10 of a calorie.
  17. Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing.
  18. The average person falls asleep in seven minutes.
  19. Almost everyone who reads this will try to lick their elbow.
  20. According to Chinese acupuncture, there is a point on the head that you can press to control your appetite. It is located in the hollow just in front of the flap of the ear.
  21. In a recent survey, Americans revealed that banana was their favorite smell.
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Did you know grapes light on fire in the microwave?

healthy eating scenes, did you know facts

Back in 2011, a physicist at the University of Sydney went viral after he placed a grape in the microwave and filmed the fiery aftermath. And oddly enough, scientists couldn’t explain the phenomenon until quite recently. A March 2019 study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reported that the fruity fireball occurs as a result of the loose electrons and ions that cluster to form plasma when grapes get hot. 

 
Did you know spaghetto, confetto, and graffito are the singular forms of spaghetti, confetti, and graffiti?

plate of spaghetti on table, did you know facts

Although it might sound a little strange, the word for an individual piece of spaghetti is spaghetto. The same goes for a single piece of confetti, which is confetto, as well as a single piece of graffiti, which is graffito, according to Merriam-Webster

 
Did you know McDonald’s once created bubblegum-flavored broccoli?

Best Foods for Maximizing Your Energy Levels

McDonald’s is always introducing new items for their loyal customers. And obviously, some are more successful than others. But their bubblegum-flavored broccoli, which the fast-food chain developed in 2014 as a tastier version of the leafy green for children, was a complete failure. McDonald’s CEO Don Thompson admitted that kids were confused by the taste.

 
Did you know the longest place name in the world is  85 letters long?
longest place name sign TaumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahuWikimedia Commons/Eyreland

Unfortunately, this is one of the did you know facts you probably can’t repeat to your friends—and that’s because it’s nearly impossible to pronounce. Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu is in New Zealand and is 85 letters long. And when it comes to other super long place names, it’s followed by Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch in Wales, Chargoggagoggmanchauggagoggchaubunagungamaugg in the U.S.,  Tweebuffelsmeteenskootmorsdoodgeskietfontein in South Africa, and Azpilicuetagaraycosaroyarenberecolarre in Spain.

 
 
 
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12 Weird and Fun Facts About Sports

  1. In 1963, major league baseball pitcher Gaylord Perry remarked, "They'll put a man on the moon before I hit a home run." On July 20, 1969, an hour after Neil Armstrong set foot on the surface of the moon, Perry hit is first, and only, home run while playing for the San Francisco Giants.
  2. Retired basketball sensation Michael Jordan makes more money from Nike each year than all the Nike factory workers in Malaysia combined.
  3. The Olympic flag's colors are always red, black, blue, green, and yellow rings on a field of white. This is because at least one of those colors appears on the flag of every nation on the planet.
  4. The average lifespan of a major league baseball: 7 pitches.
  5. Dueling is legal is Paraguay as long as both parties are registered blood donors.
  6. All major league baseball umpires must wear black underwear while on the job in case their pants split.
  7. In 1920, Babe Ruth out-homered very American League team.
  8. Babe Ruth wore a cabbage leaf under his cap to keep his head cool. He changed it every two innings.
  9. Every year 56,000,000 people attend major league baseball games.
  10. In 18th century England, gambling dens employed someone whose job was to swallow the dice if there was a police raid.
  11. A Costa Rican worker who makes baseballs earns about $2,750 annually. The average American pro baseball player earns $2,377,000 per year.
  12. There are 336 dimples on a regulation golf ball.
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Did you know that........?

 

Most lipstick contains fish scales.

 

That "jiffy" is an actual unit of time: 1/100th of a second.

 

Leonardo Da Vinci invented scissors.

 

Recycling one glass jar saves enough energy to operate a television for three hours.

 

The cigarette lighter was invented before the match.

 

There is enough fuel in full jumbo jet tank to drive an average car four times around the world.

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