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Re: DES Info:  Information on Teratogens – DES is a known Teratogen!

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@KarenF115422  I am, of course, entitled to my opinion, as are you. That being said, I meant to alert you to the thought that others would agree with me relative to your recurring posts being spamming behavior. For instance, the Oxford Dictionary. Take a look at spam's meaning as a verb:

 

spam | spam | noun 1 irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of recipients. unwanted or intrusive advertising on the Internet: [as modifier] : an autogenerated spam website. 2 (Spam) trademark a canned meat product made mainly from ham.

 

verb [with object] send the same message indiscriminately to (large numbers of recipients) on the Internet.

 

 

Again, I appreciate your passion to push out your message, but please do consider that people here might have already reached message fatigue, which then turns your efforts into a negative. 

 

My 2 cents, of course.

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The key to success is to keep growing in all areas of life - mental, emotional, spiritual, as well as physical." Julius Erving
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Re: DES Info:  Information on Teratogens – DES is a known Teratogen!

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Epster, thank you for your thoughts. As a RN and HealthCare Consultant providing health related information is not spam. Education is key. If you wish to know more or see more posts related to DES, you can follow us on our Facebook Page www.facebook.com/DESInfo. A lot more information is provided there and is followed by people around the world.
Karen M. Fernandes
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Re: DES Info:  Information on Teratogens – DES is a known Teratogen!

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@KarenF115422  I appreciate your passion and your focus, though I fear these things have driven you to act like a spammer. May I kindly suggest that you pursue alternate avenues for getting out the word about DES? You may find a higher response and success rate and a lower message fatigue rate.

 

Best wishes.

 

 

 

 

"The key to success is to keep growing in all areas of life - mental, emotional, spiritual, as well as physical." Julius Erving
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DES Info:  Information on Teratogens – DES is a known Teratogen!

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Slide1.JPGOverview

Teratogens are toxic agents that cause abnormal development resulting in birth defects. Between 3% and 5% of children born in the United States are born with developmental defects. Of these, only 2% to 3% of them are classified as teratogen-induced malformations. However, 60-70% of all defects are of unknown origin--developmental toxicology is an expanding field and some of the unclassified defects may eventually be classified as teratogen-induced.

 

Teratogenic substances do not affect each developing fetus in the same way. The fetus is most at risk during organogenesis (development of organs), which begins at about three weeks post-conception, and continues until the organs' defining characteristics have been achieved. The severity and type of the congenital malformation may vary with the duration of exposure and the specific teratogen.

 

However, exposure to the same substance on different days in development can produce different defects. Many teratogens are fatal at high doses, causing miscarriage.  Defects that present later, such as growth development and functional impairment, are harder to relate to teratogen exposure. In the time between birth and detection of impairment, exposure to other toxicants may have occurred, increasing the difficulty of identifying the responsible toxicant. 

 

Mechanisms of Action

Cell Death
In the developing fetus, communications occur between cells, both through cell-to-cell contact and biochemical signals. This communication is necessary to synchronize cell differentiation, and cell death from toxic exposure can cause abnormal development by its disruption. In addition, substances which interfere with apoptosis, planned cell death that is part of normal development, also can cause fetal malformations. 


Exposure to toxic substances causing cell death during early pregnancy, if large numbers of cells are killed, can result in spontaneous abortion. If only few cells die, however, the embryo can replace the dead cells and continue development. 


In later development, toxic exposures to such substances usually cause congenital malformations rather than miscarriage. 


Impaired Cell Function
Some toxic agents do not cause cell death, instead inhibiting normal cell function. However, the inhibition of cell function has similar effects as cell death. 


Genotoxicity
Genotoxic substances cause damage to the DNA in a cell. Such damage frequently leads to cell death and can cause spontaneous abortion, while DNA damage later in development can lead to malformations.

 

Maternal and Placental Toxicity
Toxins that affect maternal health or the placenta also affect development. A healthy placenta is the mechanism by which the fetus receives nutrition, gas is exchanged, and waste is removed. Impairment of these functions can lead to cell death.

 

Maternal infections can result in malformation or miscarriage as well. Toxoplamsa gondii infection has been associated with head and eye malformations. 

Teratogenic Agents

  • DES- Diethylstilbestrol is a synthetic estrogen. It was another drug administered to pregnant women with the intention to reduce miscarriage risk. However, female children of women who took DES had an increased risk of rare vaginal cancers and frequently malformed uteruses. Male children were likely to have smaller testes and decreased amounts of **bleep** production, and other fertility problems.

 

Toxipedia

Author: Steven Gilbert

#Diethylstilbestrol

#TheDESTragedy

DESInfo411@gmail.com

Karen M. Fernandes
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